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Magnetism

History of Study

Neel temperature, Curie temperature, lodestone, spirals, different size

In recent years, a greater understanding of the atomic origins of magnetic properties has resulted in the discovery of other types of magnetic ordering. Substances are known in which the magnetic moments interact in such a way that it is energetically favorable for them to line up antiparallel; such materials are called antiferromagnets. There is a temperature analogous to the Curie temperature called the Neel temperature, above which antiferromagnetic order disappears.

Other, more complex atomic arrangements of magnetic moments have also been found. Ferrimagnetic substances have at least two different kinds of atomic magnetic moments, which are oriented antiparallel to one another. Because the moments are of different size, a net magnetic moment remains, unlike the situation in an antiferromagnet where all the magnetic moments cancel out. Interestingly, lodestone is a ferrimagnet rather than a ferromagnet; two types of iron ions, each with a different magnetic moment, are in the material. Even more complex arrangements have been found in which the magnetic moments are arranged in spirals. Studies of these arrangements have provided much information on the interactions between magnetic moments in solids.



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Neel temperature, Curie temperature, lodestone, spirals, different size, solids, interactions, Substances, situation, recent years, Studies, materials, material, way, information

 
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