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Chemical Elements

Nickel

atomic number of nickel, elemental substance, nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate

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Nickel, symbol Ni, silvery white, magnetic metallic element used chiefly in making alloys. Nickel is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. The atomic number of nickel is 28.

Nickel was used as coinage in nickel-copper alloys for several thousand years, but was not recognized as an elemental substance until 1751 when the Swedish chemist Baron Axel Frederic Cronstedt isolated the metal from niccolite ore. The element’s name comes from the German kupfernickel, “Saint Nicholas’s copper.”

Properties

Nickel is a hard, malleable, ductile metal, capable of taking a high polish. It is magnetic below 345°C (653°F). It exists in five stable isotopic forms. Metallic nickel is not very active chemically. It is soluble in dilute nitric acid and becomes passive (nonreactive) in concentrated nitric acid; it does not react with alkalies. Nickel melts at about 1455°C (about 2651°F), boils at about 2913°C (about 5275°F), and has a specific gravity of 8.9. The atomic weight of nickel is 58.69.

Compounds

Nickel forms primarily divalent (nickelous) compounds, although examples of compounds with formal oxidation states ranging from -1 to +4 are known. Most of the salts of nickel, such as nickel chloride (NiCl 2), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), and nickel nitrate (Ni(NO3)2), are green or blue in color, and they are most commonly hydrated. Nickel ammonium sulfate (NiSO4·(NH4)2SO4·6H2O) is used in nickel-electroplating solutions. Nickel compounds are often identified by adding an organic reagent, dimethylgloxime, which reacts with nickel to form a red, flocculent precipitate.



Article key phrases:

atomic number of nickel, elemental substance, nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, transition elements, concentrated nitric acid, 6H2O, NH4, examples of compounds, NO3, alkalies, periodic table, NiCl, coinage, specific gravity, Nicholas, Compounds, Properties, metal, color, years, NiSO4

 
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